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What is the use of various chemical components in steel?

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What is the use of various chemical components in steel?

1. Carbon( C )The yield point and tensile strength increase with the increase of carbon content, but the plasticity and impact strength decrease 0.23% Therefore, the carbon content of low alloy structural steel used for welding generally does not exceed 0.20% High carbon content will also reduce the atmospheric corrosion resistance of steel, and the high carbon steel in open pit is easy to rust; in addition, carbon can increase the cold brittleness and aging sensitivity of steel.

2. Silicon( Si ): in the process of steelmaking, silicon is added as reducing agent and deoxidizer, so killed steel contains zero point one five 0.30% Silicon. If the silicon content in the steel exceeds 0.50-0.60%, Silicon is an alloy element. Silicon can significantly improve the elastic limit, yield point and tensile strength of steel, so it is widely used as spring steel. Adding in quenched and tempered structural steel one 1.2% The strength can be improved fifteen 20% The combination of silicon and molybdenum, tungsten and chromium can improve the corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance, and can be used to make heat-resistant steel. Containing silicon one 4% Low carbon steel with high permeability is used in electrical industry to make silicon steel sheet. The amount of silicon steel will decrease.

3. Manganese( Mn )In the process of steelmaking, manganese is a good deoxidizer and desulfurizer zero point three zero 0.50% Adding in carbon steel 0.70% The above is called "manganese steel". Compared with ordinary steel, it not only has enough toughness, but also has higher strength and hardness, so as to improve the hardenability and hot working performance of steel 16Mn Steel ratio A3 High yield point 40% Manganese eleven 14% The steel with high wear resistance is used for excavator bucket, ball mill liner, etc. With the increase of manganese content, the corrosion resistance of steel is weakened and the weldability is reduced.

4. Phosphorus( P )In general, phosphorus is a harmful element in steel, which increases the cold brittleness of steel, deteriorates the weldability, reduces the plasticity and deteriorates the cold bending property. Therefore, it is usually required that the phosphorus content in steel is less than 0.045% The requirements for high quality steel are lower.

5. Sulfur( S )Sulfur is also a harmful element in general. It makes the steel hot brittle, reduces the ductility and toughness of steel, and causes cracks in forging and rolling. It is also harmful to the corrosion resistance of welding. Therefore, it is usually required that the sulfur content is less than 0.055% The requirement of high quality steel is less than 0.040% Adding steel to steel 0.08-0.20% Sulfur, which can improve machinability, is usually called free cutting steel.

6. Chromium( Cr )In structural steel and tool steel, chromium can significantly improve the strength, hardness and wear resistance, but at the same time reduce the plasticity and toughness. Chromium can also improve the oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance of steel, so it is an important alloy element of stainless steel and heat-resistant steel.

7. Nickel (Ni) Nickel can improve the strength of steel while maintaining good plasticity and toughness. Nickel has high corrosion resistance to acid and alkali, and rust and heat resistance at high temperature. However, as nickel is a scarce resource, other alloying elements should be used instead of nickel chromium steel.

8. Molybdenum (Mo) Mo can refine the grain size of steel, improve hardenability and thermal strength, and maintain enough strength and creep resistance at high temperature ( Long term under high temperature stress, deformation, known as creep ) The mechanical properties of structural steel can be improved by adding molybdenum. It can also restrain the brittleness of alloy steel caused by fire. The redness can be improved in tool steel.

9. Titanium (Ti) Titanium is a strong deoxidizer in steel. It can make the internal structure of steel compact, refine grain force, reduce aging sensitivity and cold brittleness. Improve welding performance. In chromium eighteen nickel nine The intergranular corrosion can be avoided by adding proper titanium into austenitic stainless steel.

10. Vanadium (V) Vanadium is an excellent deoxidizer for steel. Steel plus 0.5% The results show that vanadium can refine the grain size and improve the strength and toughness. The carbide formed by vanadium and carbon can improve the hydrogen corrosion resistance under high temperature and high pressure.

11. Tungsten (W) Tungsten is a precious alloy element with high melting point and high ratio. Tungsten carbide formed by tungsten and carbon has high hardness and wear resistance. When tungsten is added to tool steel, the red hardness and thermal strength can be significantly improved, which can be used as cutting tools and forging dies.

12. Niobium (Nb) NB can refine grain size, reduce overheat sensitivity and temper brittleness of steel, improve strength, but decrease plasticity and toughness. Adding niobium to ordinary low alloy steel can improve atmospheric corrosion resistance and hydrogen, nitrogen and ammonia corrosion resistance at high temperature. Niobium can improve welding performance. Adding niobium to austenitic stainless steel can prevent intergranular corrosion.

13. Cobalt (Co) Cobalt is a rare precious metal, which is mostly used in special steels and alloys, such as heat-resistant steels and magnetic materials.

14. Copper (Cu) The steel made from Daye ore in WISCO often contains copper. Copper can improve strength and toughness, especially atmospheric corrosion resistance. The disadvantage is that it is easy to produce hot brittleness during hot working, and the copper content exceeds 0.5% The plasticity decreased significantly. When the copper content is less than 0.50% No effect on weldability.

15. Aluminium (Al) Aluminum is commonly used in steel. The addition of a small amount of aluminum in steel can refine the grain size and improve the impact toughness 08Al Steel. Aluminum also has anti-oxidation and anti-corrosion properties. The combination of aluminum with chromium and silicon can significantly improve the high-temperature non peeling performance and high-temperature corrosion resistance of steel. The disadvantage of aluminum is that it affects the hot workability, weldability and machinability of steel.

16. Boron (B) The compactness, hot rolling property and strength of the steel can be improved by adding a small amount of boron into the steel.

17. Nitrogen (N): Nitrogen can improve the strength, low temperature toughness, weldability and aging sensitivity of steel.

18. Rare earth (Xt) Rare earth elements refer to the atomic number in the periodic table 57-71 Of fifteen Lanthanide elements. These elements are all metals, but their oxides are very similar to "Earth", so they are traditionally called rare earth. The composition, morphology, distribution and properties of inclusions in steel can be changed by adding rare earth into steel, so as to improve various properties of steel, such as toughness, weldability and cold working performance. The wear resistance of ploughshare steel can be improved by adding rare earth.


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2020.01.13


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